We invite you to discover with us the history of our beautiful canton...
It(he) is past here? Can be. But who thus? The man of Tautavel, pardi! But that makes(does) a lease: 450 000 years. In fact our beautiful country in always lived. Nice Néanderthal (-90 000 > 35 000 ) left his marks(brands) almost everywhere: scrapers, knives. The Homo Sapiens as well seems to have liked a lot at home (-35 000 > 10 000 ) and the Homo Sapiens Sapiens (which intelligence!) our back is almost defer grandfather; it(he) leaves almost everywhere on its(his) passage a whole material shaped on bone: points, needles, harpoons, etc. some vestiges of which one still finds. The climatic change ends the last glaciation and makes avoid(flee) Magdaléniens northward. And we arrive quite slowly at our first Neolithic farmers (-6000 > 1500 ). New races settle down on our ground and new tools appear: one raises(brings up), one cultivates, the ceramic progresses.
- 3500: here is the civilization Chasséenne then the final Neolithic (> 2500 years old): it is a real pastoral and agricultural revolution. The country is rapidly growing; we have it for testimony of dolmens (80), menhirs (20), common graves or collective graves.
A little later, significant progress at the age of the bronze (-on 1800 > - 700); axes with edge or bracelets are produced on the spot. One can find their tracks to Saint Pierre of fields, Montlaur, Caunettes in Valley, Taurize, Serviès in Valley. The iron dethrones the bronze which had dethroned the stone. Our region already lives an interbreeding of peoples: the Iberians whose influence is important, the Celts and the Ligures. The country gets organized in sometimes strengthened conglomerations. Vestiges subsitent everywhere in the surroundings: Mayronnes, Saint Pierre of fields, etc....
But gradually the Roman culture penetrates into the region. Permières Latin colonies build up themselves to Narbonne and the economy develops; the agricultural equipment perfects and consequently the agriculture. The stability and the ease settle down and we arrive at the PAX ROMANA. Period of remarkable prosperity for the region in spite of the protectionism of Rome which forbids to our nice autochthons the culture of the vineyard and the olive tree to import their amphoras of Campania. The region gets organized, forms itself, makes(does) a development of lands; roads and roads cover(mark out in squares) the country, so allowing the business and the exploitation of appearances(mines). No municipality in our canton which has its own vestiges: Montlaur, Taurize, Saint Pierre of fields, Talairan, Tournissan, Villemagne, and I doubtless cross(spend) it. The agriculture as well develops, the bans fall and henceforth place to the vineyard, please , to the olive tree, to the cereal, to the breeding in the zones of scrublands.
But, regrettably, nothing is eternal! Voila the Visigoths who enter scene; gently, shall say we! If Narbonne becomes Wisigothique in 461, those this lead a politics(policy) of conciliation, respect the religious and legal structures created by Pax Romana (numerous vestiges of objects of metal: rings, buckles of belts in the geometrical motives for sharply oriental inspiration). One sets up small rustic sanctuaries almost everywhere on the territory until the IX ème century about.
But the civilization Wisigothe does not resist to the Saracen tornado. She(it) lasts little and did not leave archaeological tracks. The local tradition places the last Saracen raid in the said place of Line Red earth(ground) of which, says the legend, keeps(guards) the tracks of all this paid(poured) blood ( 793 ). The IX ème and X ème century see the reproduction of small churches and convents on the sat(based) of former(ancient) temples: small miracles of a primitive novel. One of the key points will be Lagrasse's abbey the legend of which attributes(awards) the forming(training) to Charlemagne he even. Very powerful, she(it) shines in all the South of France and in Catalonia.
We arrive slowly at a feudal company(society). The Lords reign over the country taxing serfs and farmers. In parallel the Bishops more powerful than never mennent a princely life. How thus not to understand(include) the enormous ditch between these diamonds prelates and the common people eager for purer doctrines? Of this abyss, is born the catharisme come from oriental doctrines. We shall pass on this famous crusade against albigeois, organized by the Church and which hurt(damaged) our region to the point that the recollections remain still heart-rending there. (We send back(dismiss) to you to the adequate littératue which abounds almost everywhere). Let us indicate simply that " people by " carry(wear) her(it) as one badly closed wound. The conlusion of all this is that the country becomes royal ownership. However our region, at instigation of an economic boom, develops; the occitane language elaborates and spells about as today.
The XIV ème century is dark for all the realm. The black plague rages everywhere and finishes the morbid work of the successive scarcities (30 % of mortality). The panic and the horror reign by 1350. But a misfortune never comes only: the One hundred years war enters France and marks people in the person of famous Prince Noir. The "Long-distance lorry drivers", soldiers demobilized in 1360 terrorize the populations: one " emmuraille " to protect itself. Even Lagrasse's abbey builds its ramparts. The Region will find its prosperity only in the XVI ème century; the rustic communities at this moment there are going to start again of the hair of the animal and to fight for the acquisition of a bigger autonomy.
During the XVII ème century the rustic communities get organized administratively (name of the consuls, the management of the community). It is nevertheless a difficult century: the plague, the rigours of the climate, the insecurity delay the development of the region. The canton undergoes soubressauts caused by the revolt of Duke de Montmorency, governor of all the province. " Autonomisme " before the term existed of this defeated prince and executé in Toulouse in 1632. Louis XIV strengthens his royal power.
The XVIII ème sees a bait(onset) of economic recovery under the influence of an increase in population. The trading bourgeoisie grows rich and pulls(fires) its profits of the breeding of ewe ( very important livestock). Our region avoided the tragic soubressauts which knew the other provinces during the Revolution. The department is created in 1790. But the death of olive trees due to a very rigorous winter provokes an economic crisis. Certain municipalities as Montlaur are duremment got(touched). Rieux in valley knows a popular uprising. In this context, one drafts the famous registers of grievances. But the revolutionary laws weaken the poorest category of the population. Numerous conflicts among the breeders and the farmers land-clearers follow because their interêts is completely opposing(conflicting). Bit by bit the breeding declines partially because of the will of the farmers. The XIX ème is going to know a real agricultural revolution. We pass of an autarkic polyculture in a wine industrial monoculture of type. The vineyard makes avoid(flee) the sheep and the cereal. Nevertheless, this animal had been for the region a big source of wealth (12 tanneries to Lagrasse in 1833 and 15 000 sheeps still in 1807). But the livestock disparait slowly in the second part(party) of the XIX ème. The wine becomes more and more profitable. The culture of the olive tree is abandoned. The increase of the urban populations and the construction of the railway bring a surprising prosperity. The inferior lands are revalued. At the beginning of the XX ème the vineyard supplies to our inhabitants the biggest of their incomes. More cereal: the Aude became completely wine. And from there, begin to be born the problems: overproduction, doubtful practices of the Parisian traders, provoke a collapse of the price in the hectolitre. Besides, the philoxéra which had saved(spared) for a while our vineyards makes(does) its appearance here but one reconstitutes fast the vineyard. One produces especially some " big red ": many of randement for not enough quality. 1907 sees the country being fired; the revolt scolds everywhere, lifts(raises) the crowds in important cities and makes leaders charismatic spring as Marcelin Albert. Later, wines come from the other France " (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia) create a slump to us. In 34 the prices collapse. New crisis, interrupted by the second world war. In the 50s nait at the wine grower the consciousness of a fight for its survival. After the war of Algeria, the misfortunes of the occitane vineyard always come Italian imports. On March 31, 1963, first commando group. Of the crisis are born new leaders, the most famous being Maffre De Baugé. Creation of a syndicate of young farmers. The crisis becomes intensified; the wine is very badly sold. The 60s see the slow asphyxiation of the vine growing. The tensions rise until the unbearable. The violent demonstrations multiply almost everywhere and noon makes(does) the Channel one of the national press. But Paris always seems to turn a deaf ear. The demands of May, 68 made sensitive local Intelligenzia: Singers ( Marti), poets (Yves Rouquette), théâtreux (Theater of the carrièra), in brief a whole cultural movement is set up. Dazed France rediscovers this earth(ground) millennium, theater of many dramas. The orders(deposits) in the style of the day?: " Volem Viure al Pais ". Nevertheless at the end of gristle, the wine growers get organized; the violence goes(takes) up several notches and it is the inevitable drama. 76, it is the shooting of Montredon that makes(does) a dead man in every camp. Everybody is under the shock.
It is not a question here of making(doing) an exhaustive story of this war of the wine the actions of which continue occasionally. We send back(dismiss) to you to an adequate bibliography. Please, know nevertheless that behind our so beautiful landscapes of picture postcard there is a fascinating history of these " people by "; they write it even every day.